Negru de Drăgășani

This recent Romanian cross has the potential to produce soft, fruity reds.

ORIGINS AND PARENTAGE
Negru de Drăgășani, meaning ‘black from Drăgășani’, was originally called Negru Vîrtos x SAPERAVI, a cross obtained in 1993 by Mircea Mărculescu and Mircea Vlădăsel at the SCPVV research centre in Drăgășani, Southwest Romania, in which Negru Vîrtos (‘Vigorous black’) is an old, no longer cultivated Romanian variety. This would make Negru de Drăgășani a sibling of NOVAC. However, Saperavi’s DNA profile is not consistent with this parentage. In a recent genetic study (Bodea et al. 2009), Negru de Drăgășani appeared as closely related to Negru Vîrtos, Novac and Bătută Neagră, an old, no longer cultivated Romanian variety that could be Negru de Drăgășani’s other parent, but recent results from the Dragasani viticulture research centre suggest instead that the other parent could be BABEASCĂ NEAGRĂ (Ciprian Neascu, personal communication).

VITICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS
Vigorous, productive, mid-ripening. Loose bunches of thick-skinned berries. Not particularly susceptible to fungal diseases.

WHERE IT’S GROWN AND WHAT ITS WINE TASTES LIKE
The area planted to this variety is still very small (6 ha/15 acres in Romania in 2008) but it appears to be easier to grow and to have more potential than NOVAC. Wines are characterized by sweet, dark berry flavors, spices, and soft tannins. Recommended producers include  Vinarte or Viile Metamorfosis.

Fetească Regală

The most planted Fetească, the source of fresh, aromatic whites in Romania.

MAIN SYNONYMS: Dănășană or Dăneșană (Transylvania in Romania), Dunesdorfer Konigsast (Transylvania), Galbenă de Ardeal (Romania), Konigliche Madchentraube (Hungary), Pesecka Leanka (Slovakia).

VARIETIES COMMONLY MISTAKEN FOR FETEASCĂ REGALĂ: KIRALYLEANYKA (Hungary)

ORIGINS AND PARENTAGE
Fetească Regală, literally ‘royal young girl’, was first observed in the 1920s in the village of Daneș near Sighișoara, Transylvania, Romania, hence its synonym Dănășană. It was initially cultivated by a nurseryman called Gaspari from the town of Mediaș, who distributed it under the German name Dunesdorfer Konigsast (Dejeu 2004), literally ‘king’s branch from Duneș village’. The wine obtained from this variety was then presented by Gaspari at the National Wine and Fruit Exhibition in Bucharest in 1928 under the name of Fetească Regală, which was then adopted (Galet 2000). Two morphological types have been distinguished: one with long clusters and yellowish, thin-skinned berries, the other with winged clusters and yellow-green, thick-skinned berries (Dejeu 2004).

Common wisdom is that Fetească Regală is a natural cross between FETEASCĂ ALBĂ  and GRASĂ DE COTNARI (aka Koverszolo) obtained in the 1930s (Galet 2000; Târdea and Rotaru 2003) but, although recent studies have suggested that Fetească Regală and Fetească Albă are morphologically and genetically close (Bodea et al. 2009), the comparison of their DNA profiles (Ghețea et al. 2010; Galbacs et al. 2009) tends to contradict any strict parent—offspring relationship between Fetească Regală and either of its alleged parents (Vouillamoz).

VITICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS
Vigorous, mid- to late ripening. Compact bunches of thin-skinned berries. Susceptible to botrytis bunch rot and drought but resistant to cold winter temperatures (to -20 °C/—4 °F) and hot summers. Clone 21 Bl has higher yields and a higher sugar content in the berries.

WHERE IT GROWS AND WHAT THE WINE TASTES LIKE
Fetească Regală, the most widely planted variety in Romania (16,363 ha/ 4O,434 acres in 2008) tends to produce aromatic wines that are dry and fresh, occasionally floral, sometimes with more exotic fruit flavors — both still and sparkling, but also used for distillation into brandy. Thanks to the tannins in the skins, it takes better to oak than does FETEASCĂ ALBĂ. Recommended producers include Liliac, Balla Géza Winery, Petro Vaselo, Budureasca or Crama Gîrboiu.

In the Republic of Moldova, there has been usually no distinction between the less common Fetească Regală and the more widely planted FETEASCĂ ALBĂ. The former is not even listed in the official statistics and is almost always blended with Fetească Albă, the final wine simply labeled Fetească.

There has been some confusion in Slovakia because Feteasca Regală (391 ha/966 acres in 2009) and Pesecka Leanka (516 ha/1,275 acres, named after the region of Pesek, where it is traditionally grown) are deemed to be separate varieties although growers now begin to recognize them as one and the same (no DNA evidence yet). Producers of varietal wines include Stiglic, Josef Yhnak and Josef Zalaba. Hacaj also makes a sparkling version.

Ukraine’s official vineyard statistics recorded around 1,600 ha (3,954 acres) in 2009, but they do not distinguish between the various varieties of Fetească.

Fetească Neagră

Soiul roşu de Fetească este o varietate de struguri renăscută ce provine din Moldova, din care se obţin vinuri de calitate superioară în special în România.

ALTE DENUMIRI

Coada Rândunicii (România, Republica Moldova), Fetyaska Chernaya (Ucraina), Păsărească Neagră (Republica Moldova), Poama Fetei Negre (Republica Moldova), Schwarze Madchentraube (România).

ORIGINI

Feteasca Neagră este un vechi soi de struguri care îşi are originea în regiunea istorică a Moldovei (care include atât Republica Moldova, cât şi regiunea Moldova din Estul României), unde s-a cultivat de-a lungul timpului. Din Moldova, Feteasca Neagra Neagră s-a răspândit spre Vest, în Transilvania şi Ungaria. Contrar cu ipoteza Roy-Chevrier (1930a), Feteasca Neagră nu a apărut ca urmare a unei mutaţii de pigment din soiul Fetească Albă, aşa cum este demonstrat în testul ADN (Gheţea et al. 2010). Feteasca Neagră arată o mare biodiversitate, în care se regăsesc cel puţin patru tipuri distincte (Dejeu 2004), ceea ce sugerează vechimea soiului.

ALTE IPOTEZE

Similar cu Fetească Albă, despre Fetească Neagră s-a menţionat că este un soi selecţionat de către daci din viţele de vie sălbatice, chiar dacă nu s-au descoperit dovezi în acest sens.

TRĂSĂTURILE VIŢEI DE VIE

Planta este foarte viguroasă, cu înmugurire medie şi cu coacere medie spre târzie. Ciorchinii sunt compacţi şi formaţi din struguri cu pieliţa groasă. Este rezistentă la secetă, la temperaturile scăzute de iarnă (-22°C/-8°F), la mucegai şi făinare.

UNDE SE CULTIVĂ ŞI GUSTUL VINULUI

Fetească Neagră este un soi autohton, originar din arealul prezent al Republicii Moldova. Cu toate acestea, nu a fost plantată în timpul perioadei Sovietice şi care în prezent aproape că a dispărut. Însă, producători precum Cricova, Equinox, Et Cetera, Purcari sau Château Vartely a început plantarea acestui soi încă de la sfârşitului anilor 2000.

Feteasca Neagră produce unele dintre cele mai bune vinuri roşii din România şi este cultivată pe o suprafaţă de aproximativ 1.088 de hectare, în special în partea de Est a Moldovei şi în Sudul Munteniei. Vinurile sunt, în general, seci şi corpolente cu arome intense de condiment, fructe roşii şi negre – în special prune uscate – şi taninuri rotunde pe măsură ce vinul se învecheşte. Soiul se aseamănă cu Blaufränkisch şi poate fi maturat pentru o perioadă mai lungă în baricuri. De asemenea, se obţin şi vinuri dulci şi demidulci, mai ales pentru piaţa internă. Printre producătorii autohtoni care cultivă Fetească Neagră cu rezultate deosebite putem enumera Casa de Vinuri Cotnari, Davino, SERVE, Liliac sau Balla Géza.

Fetească Albă

This variety is the second-most planted Fetească, even more important in Romania than its Moldova birthplace.

MAIN SYNONYMS: Dievcie Hrozno (Slovakia), Fetiasca Belii (Russia, Ukraine), Fetișoară (Republic of Moldova, Romania) Fetyaska Alba (Ukraine), Madchentraube (Hungary), Păsărească Albă (Republic of Moldova, Romania), Poamă Fetei Albă (Republic of Moldova), Văratic (Republic of Moldova).

ORIGINS AND PARENTAGE
Fetească Albă literally means “white young girl”. It is an old variety with probable origins in the historic region of Moldova (including today’s Republic of Moldova and Romania’s eastern region of Moldova), where it has been cultivated traditionally. It has then spread west to Transilvania and Hungary. Fetească Albă is genetically close to other varietes from Moldova such as GRASĂ DE COTNARI.
According to Dejeu (2004), Fetească Albă was obtained from (not clear if a clone or a descendant) FETEASCA NEAGRĂ in historic Moldova between the 3rd and 13th centuries A.D. Recent studies suggest that they are morphologically and genetically close (Bodea et al. 2009), but the comparison of the DNA profiles of Fetească Albă and Fetească Neagră in Ghețea et al. (2010) tends to disprove any parent-offspring relationship (Vouillamoz).
The Hungarian variety LEANYKA is thought to be identical to Fetească Albă (Galet 2000; Rohaly et al. 2003) but comparison of their DNA profiles (Galbacs et al. 2009; Ghetea et al. 2010) disproves this hypothesis (Vouillamoz).

OTHER HYPOTHESES
Like FETEASCĂ NEAGRĂ, Fetească Albă has often been said to have been directly domesticated by the Dacians from local wild grapevines but there is no evidence so far.

VITICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS
Vigorous, early budding, mid ripening. Small, compact bunches of small, thin-skinned berries.
Susceptible to downy and powdery mildews, botrytis bunch rot and mites but resistant to cold winter temperatures (to -20 °C/-4 °F).

WHERE IT GROWS AND WHAT THE WINES TASTE LIKE
The Republic of Moldova’s 4,334 ha (10,710 acres) of Fetească Albă are in the centre and south of the country, producing wines with medium acidity, floral and citrus flavours, often used to make sparkling wines. Recommended producers include Chateau Vartely.

Fetească Albă is even more important in neighbouring Romania, where there were 10,529 ha (26,018 acres) in 2008, more than 10% of the total area under vineyards and second only to FETEASCA REGALA. It is spread throughout most of the wine regions but the greatest concentrations are in Transylvania in the centre of the country and in Romania’s Moldova to the east. Wines, both still and sparkling, are generally dry or medium dry but some excellent sweet, still versions, alone or blended with GRASĂ DE COTNARI and other local varieties, are produced in Cotnari in the far northeast. Styles of wine vary considerably but dry wines are typically more full-bodied than Feteasca Regala and combine citrus and light peach or apricot flavours. Vines planted in the south often produce wines lacking in acidity. Producers of varietal wines include SERVEAurelia Vişinescu Wines, DavinoCrama GîrboiuCasa de Vinuri Cotnari, Liliac, Budureasca, or Viile Metamorfosis.
The variety is said to be planted in Hungary but this may be due to the common but incorrect belief that Fetească Albă and LEANYKA are one and the same variety. Ukraine’s official vineyard statistics recorded approximately 1,600 ha (3,954 acres) in 2009 but they do not distinguish between the various varieties of Fetească.

Crâmpoșie Selecționată

This is a top-quality, high acidity Romanian variety which produces zesty, mineral-laden whites.

MAIN SYNONYMS: Crâmpoşie Selecționată.

ORIGINS AND PARENTAGE
Crâmpoșie Selecționată is a seedling of Crâmpoșie obtained by Emilian Popescu, Marin Neagu and Petre Banita in 1972, at the viticultural research centre in Drăgășani, southwest Romania, in a bid to solve the problem of uneven berry sizes, caused by the functionally female flowers in Crâmpoșie, an old variety thought to have originated in the Drăgășani region in Oltenia, southwest Romania, now supplanted by its more reliable progeny. The selection was obtained by open fertilization of Crâmpoșie, with the other parent unknown.

VITICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS
Relatively vigorous, productive, late ripening. Big bunches of thick-skinned berries. Resistant to rain, heat and fungal diseases.

WHERE IT GROWS AND WHAT ITS WINES TASTE LIKE
Crâmpoșie Selecționată, or Crâmpoșie, mainly grows in the Drăgășani region and further east in Panciu and Constanța, on Romania’s Black Sea coast.  The best wines are refined, zesty, high in acidity and have a strong minerality, made even more refreshing by a light bitterness on the finish. It is sometimes blended with other varieties such as SAUVIGNONASSE to increase acidity. Recommended producers include Casa Isărescu or Prince Știrbey, the latter also experimenting with a sparkling version. In 2008, it was grown on 473 ha (1,169 acres) in Romania. It is also a popular table wine.